Today, it is not unusual to see a spouse operating a business in the form of a limited liability company or owning an interest in an investment that is a limited liability company (hereafter sometimes referred to as an LLC). This is a relatively recent phenomenon. In 1991 Texas became the 7th state to authorize the creation of limited liability companies. Since then all 50 states and the District of Columbia authorize them. They are very popular because:
- They offer protection for the owners from business liabilities (like a corporation or limited partnership),
- Allow the members (what the owner of an LLC interest is called) to control the business (unlike the limited partner in a limited partnership), and
- Allow for the “pass through” treatment for federal income tax purposes (like a Sub C corporation or a partnership).
As a recent Texas case dealing with LLC’s stated (SJ Medical Center, LLC v. Estahbanati, 418 S.W. 3d 867, ___ (Tex. App. Houston (14th Dist) 2013, ____), “Limited liability companies have been said to offer ‘the best of both worlds—the limited liability of a corporation and the favorable tax treatment of a partnership.’”
In a divorce action that deals with an LLC, experienced divorce lawyers will tell you the three most important questions are: (a) What is the value of the LLC interest, (b) Has all of the original capital been contributed, or is there any chance additional funds will have to be paid to the LLC, and (c) What restrictions are placed on the transfer of the ownership interest by either state law or the Company Agreement? Other important questions are: (d) When was the interest in the LLC acquired – during marriage or before, and (e) If acquired during marriage, was it acquired with community or separate property.
Types of LLC’s
There are a number of very common uses for LLC’s.
An LLC can be the General Partner of a Limited Liability Partnership.
When a limited partnership is formed, there has to be a general partner. The general partner is the partner who manages the partnership but is also personally liable for the obligations of the limited partnership. The limited partners are just that – they have limited liability equal to their original contribution (and any subsequent required contributions) to the partnership when it begins its existence. Limited partners have no rights of day to day management of the partnership. It is quite normal for the general partner in a limited partnership to be an LLC. Thus while the LLC is responsible for the liabilities of the limited partnership, the LLC members individually have limited their personal liability to a specific sum. It is quite normal for this type of LLC to own a very small portion of the limited liability company but have all the liability – and also the right to manage the investment. To look at the formation scheme backwards, the member can manage the LLC which is the general partner and manager of the limited partnership.
Common investments that use this type of structure involve real estate or oil and gas development. Usually the general partner owns less than 1% of the investment. Thus if the LLC owned a 1% general partner interest in the limited partnership, and value of the whole limited partnership is $1,000,000, the LLC value would be no more than $10,000 assuming no additional discounts for lack of control or lack of marketability. If the member of the LLC owns only 1/3 of that LLC, then the value of that interest would be no more than $3,333.33 again subject to further reductions for lack of control and lack or marketability. The testimony necessary to value the interest could vary depending on the parameters the expert uses to make his or her determination, but for quick analysis purposes, simple math is enough to give a spouse – whether the owner spouse or the non-owner spouse – a general idea of what value this type of ownership has in the community estate (it is also common for one of the spouses to also be a limited partner so you would have two types of ownership interest to analyze and value).
The Investment Company
Because of all of the advantages described at the beginning of this paper, it is common to see many investments take the form of a limited liability company. In these investments, the owners make a commitment to contribute a certain sum of money into the business – either all at the beginning or over a period of years – for example, $100,000 original investment and a commitment to contribute $50,000 for the next three years for a total investment of $250,000. Normally, at least in this author’s experience, these investments are not too restrictive in the transfer of ownership for a number of reasons. If this investment exists, divorce attorneys recommend it is a good idea to finding out from the managers of the LLC what does it takes to transfer all or part of an interest. Also determine if any additional capital requirements are required. As stated below, get a copy of the company agreement as this will explain how membership interests can be transferred. These investments can be very difficult to value because it is not uncommon for them to own a number of investments, many of which are themselves LLC’s. For example, what if the LLC owned a minority interest in a portfolio of real estate mortgages? The effort it would take to value such an investment might exceed the value of the LLC interest owned. Joint ownership may be the only answer if that is possible based on the transfer rules of the company agreement.
The Operating Business
The next type of LLC is one that is actually set up and run for one or two special reasons – a shoe store or a computer software developer would be typical examples. It is possible for this type of LLC to have only one member. If there is only one member, then it is easy to manipulate the ownership rules. This can be done in a destructive fashion if that is the desire of the member. But a spouse owes a fiduciary duty to the community estate, and with such a duty, it is not recommended that a member (owner) conduct his or her business that way. Since it is the duty of the trial court to divide the community estate in a manner that is just and right, the flexibility in modifying the terms of the company agreement can be very useful in resolving a marital property dispute. The value of this type of LLC is similar to valuing any other small business in Dallas, Plano, or Austin, Texas. If there is only one owner, it is not particularly difficult to divide the ownership interest between the two spouses. The real question is whether it is a good idea to divide the interest versus having one spouse awarded the LLC, and the other spouse awarded either assets of equal value or making a payout over a period of time.
It is also possible for the LLC to have two, three or four members. As the number of members increases, the form of the company agreement may go through a number of changes. It is not unreasonable that the complexity of the ownership rules will change during this process. If the entity has a number of members who have joined then left the LLC, that can create a pattern of how membership interests are bought, transferred and even sold. This history is important in looking at one’s options in resolving the divorce case.
The Family Business
If a family has created a large business or a number of businesses, it is common for them to use a combination of business entities including LLC’s. They can be for investment purposes, to control how the family businesses are run, to limit liability, or for many other legitimate business or estate planning reasons. It is quite common for there to be many restrictions on who can become a member of these entities. It is common for the entities to be stacked on top of one another. The reason for such complex dealings is to make sure that that the family business stays that way – and that the ownership interests cannot be diluted by divorce. For example, if Grand Ma was instrumental in creating a successful business – for an example, an oil and gas pipeline or a computer business – she might clearly want to make sure that only her descendants own the business in the future. As the generations pass, this becomes more and more difficult, but the use of LLC’s can make it easier to accomplish no matter how small the investments become from the dilution of passing generations.
The Professional Business
It is common for many professional businesses – for example a medical practice or a law firm, to be set up as an LLC. These entities even have their own special name – Professional Limited Liability Companies or PLLC. If this is true, there are special rules that apply to who can own them – for example, if a law firm, only a licensed attorney could be a member of the LLC. These entities have their own set of interesting problems that are outside the scope of this paper.
The Company Agreement
The most important document in the creation of an LLC is the company agreement (sometimes called the operating agreement). This document states how an LLC is operated, what payments are permitted to members or obligations to be paid by the members, and who can be a member. Except for a very few statutory requirements, the operating agreement is binding on the members and any restrictions on transfer are strictly enforced. Most company agreements regulate how the ownership can be transferred. It is not uncommon that the operating agreement states that the ownership interest can only be transferred in very limited circumstances – for example, to a trust created by a member without the approval of all other members or only with the approval of the other members of the LLC.
So now that you know about some of the LLCs, now we can dive into the answering: What Happens to an LLC in Divorce: Part II.